2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio] imidazolium derivates

This class of non-peptidyl, active site directed molecules was developed by Merck Sharp & Dohme in the 1990s. The active site cysteinyl residue attacks the carbonyl group (1) similar to the glutamine residue. However, the subsequent reaction leads to the release of the complementary thione (2) and to the acetonylation of the cysteine (3) (Freund et al., Biochemistry 1994, 33:10109-19).

Even if the molecules were developed to block coagulation factor XIIIa, the compounds inhibit tissue transglutaminase as well (Barsigan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1991, 22501-9).

One candidate out of the series has been evaluated in animal models (e.g. Shebuski et al., blood 1990, 1455-9). Please notice that the authors reported a plasma half life of 5 to 10 minutes only.

Oxopropyl thio imidazolium derivates mechanism

Zedira offers three derivatives of the thioimidazolium scaffold.

  • T101 (L-682.777) is a good blocker of tissue transglutaminase and coagulation factor XIIIa. Both enzymes are inhibited with an IC50 of about 0.25 μM.
  • D004 (L-683.685) is a good blocker of tissue transglutaminase and coagulation factor XIIIa. Both enzymes are blocked with an IC50 of about 0.35 μM.
  • D003 is a weak blocker of tissue transglutaminase with an IC50 of about 1.0 μM.

Art. No.
D003 1,3-Dimethyl-2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium chloride
100 mg
480 €
D004 1,3-Dimethyl-4,5-diphenyl-2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium trifluorosulfonic acid salt
10 mg
520 €
T101 1,3,4,5-Tetramethyl-2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium chloride
10 mg
480 €


  • Zedira offers a huge portfolio of reliable specialist transglutaminase related products meant to catalyze research and development, both in academia and industry.


  • imageZedira communication: Joint poster presentation on “Feasibility of a new automated FXIII activity assay”
  • imageArtikel in DZG Aktuell 01/2019 über die klinische Wirksamkeitsstudie unseres potentiellen Zöliakie Medikaments (deutsch)
  • imagePreview: Catalogue Editorial 2019
  • Press release: Dr. Falk Pharma and Zedira announce start of the phase 2a proof of concept study of ZED1227 for the treatment of celiac disease
  • Artikel in DLG-Lebensmittel – 06/2017 zur Bestimmung von Transglutaminase in Lebensmitteln (deutsch)
  • Zedira publication: Microbial Transglutaminase Used in Bread Preparation at Standard Bakery Concentrations Does Not Increase Immunodetectable Amounts of Deamidated Gliadin
  • Pressemitteilung: Dr. Falk Pharma und Zedira geben den Abschluss der Phase 1b-Studie für ZED1227 zur Zöliakie-Therapie bekannt und planen Start der Wirksamkeitsstudie
  • Press release: Dr. Falk Pharma and Zedira announce completion of phase 1b clinical trial of ZED1227 for the treatment of celiac disease and move on to proof of concept study
  • Press Release: Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH and Zedira enter a phase 1b clinical trial for a celiac disease drug
  • Zedira publication: Microbial transglutaminase has a lower deamidation preference than human tissue transglutaminase on a celiac disease relevant wheat gliadin T-cell epitope
  • Press release: Additional subsidy funding for clinical development of a celiac disease drug
  • Pressemitteilung: Zusätzliche Fördermittel für die klinische Entwicklung eines Zöliakie-Medikamentes
  • Press Release: Cooperation between Zedira and Cardiff University - Transglutaminase 6 is the focus of new research into ataxia
  • Press Release: Dr. Falk Pharma and Zedira enter phase I clinical trials for a celiac disease drug
  • Press release: Zedira receives further funding to develop Factor XIIIa-blockers for safe anticoagulation



  • European Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis

    02.10.2019 - 04.10.2019
    Glasgow, United Kingdom

  • Celiac Disease Center's International Symposium

    06.03.2020 - 07.03.2020
    New York, USA

  • Gordon Research Conference - Transglutaminases in Human Disease Processes

    14.06.2020 - 19.06.2020
    Mount Snow, USA